Chapters 40 through 49 of
“Da Jiang Da Hai 1949”
(“Big River, Big Sea - Untold Stories of 1949”)
by Lung Ying-tai
“Da Jiang Da Hai 1949” was released in September 2009 to coincide with the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China. It immediately became a best-seller in Taiwan and Hong Kong. The book was published in Chinese by the CommonWealth Magazine Group and it has not yet been translated into English by the publisher.
Lung Ying-tai incorporates the previously-unheralded post-war role of the crew of the USS LST-847 into the historical mosaic she has written about the great upheaval in China and Taiwan during the end of World War II and the Chinese Civil War. She uses the LST-847 crewmember's letters and photos to great effect in telling portions of the story in Chapters 40 through 49.
Before continuing, you might like to read one or more of these book reviews to get a better understanding of the author and her book:
I translated these chapters from Chinese to English using Google Translate. Portions of the machine translation were lightly edited to improve readibility and links were added for reference purposes. Back in 2009 I granted Ms. Lung permission to use information and selected photos from my LST-847 web site and excerpts from my uncle's Sept. 21-22,1945 letter in exchange for the acknowledgements that appear in the "Thanks" section of her book (shown below).
September 21, 1945, LST-847, docked in Shanghai, China on the Huangpu River.
Mid-Autumn Festival on September 20, 1945 is unusual, this is first Mid-Autumn Festival with no gunfire, no alarm in many years.
But nowhere to be found is a sudden end to chaos, mostly caused by the war. For many people, their parents and loved ones hands and feet, not hastily in a shallow battlefield, that is, wandering thousands of miles, I do not know whereabouts. 1945 The Mid-Autumn Festival, a lot of people want the most urgent is to die in a troubled loved ones on a stick of incense, smoke slowly rose to the sky, to carry a message of war is finally over, and whisper Dear displaced persons to return home as soon as possible.
In preparing festive atmosphere, but reveals a strange restlessness; Shanghai people excitedly spread the news: the U.S. Seventh Fleet to enter the harbor of. Huangpu terminal.
Mid-Autumn night, bluish-white beneath pure, such as washing, to the early morning, the river was covered with a thin mist; forty-four huge warships in the world of hazy blue in the water suddenly emerge, mammoth elephants, like a mirage, as Phantom dream. Coolies, already carrying heavy loads on the pier , far from looking like a group of small ants shuttle stop, close look at the various described the weight loss, sunken cheeks, but the grin, the school of naive. Coolies to remove heavy Xieshen when looked up and saw a large ship like an imposing mountain, like standing on the Hong Kong side, at once shocked.
Before long, the city woke up, leaving people living hand, have toward the river. Turned out on the pier, waving barefoot children running along the ship, shouting. I do not know what people bring into the bundles of bundles of firecrackers, on the ground that exploded to the pier Pipi, a bustling firecrackers. I do not know what time, there have been huge banners hanging in the face of terminal building, huge words that say "Welcome 7th Fleet of US Navy."
Prowling the river are bumboats selling groceries, wildly crazy surrounding the warships, waves constantly crash the old and broken wooden boats into the ships.Young boatmen paddle against forces of waves, trying to trade with sailors on the deck.
Newspapers soon out:
"Central News Agency WASHINGTON" U.S. Seventh Fleet commander Vice Adm. Thomas C. Kinkaid led the first fleet arrived there, the people with great excitement to the city, built up since the outbreak of war in the Pacific war against Japan since the victory of a comprehensive , fought in the Allied sea toiled fleet, which was the first Shanghai were also reaches my large, 3 pm yesterday, ... welcome to the ranks of the Youth League men and women to participate in his party, and no less than ten million people in all walks of life, away from the Bund forces in order to River waving flags shouting, the warm peak, less than a few days before the scene military welcome.
Bob, a US sailor on the USS LST-847 (landing ship, tank), is standing on the ship's side to look down on the pier. He is only 18 years old, baby blue eyes, the nose on both sides full of freckles. Navy did not take long, though the war is over and the days of peace onboard not dangerous, he did not think things were so simple: each port has bombed boats afloat on the water, charred wrecks of the battlefield, not as towed bodies and skeletons, sailing the big ship into this territory becomes a difficult task. Many waters surrounding the port are still covered with unexploded mines, mines made him scared.
Overlooking from the deck down and saw a dark mass on the pier waving shouting people, Chinese people's enthusiasm for the Allies a little beyond his imagination.
That night lying in his bunk, Bob wrote a letter to his parents far away in the United States to give them snapshots.
1945-09-21 [link to entire transcribed letter]
... This place is really interesting. When we first entered port, about one hundred thousand Japanese here, hungry like a ghost, the Chinese do not give them to eat ... ...
This is the Huangpu River, and some Japanese ships are here, but have the American flag flying over their Rising Sun flag. Japanese eyes looked very fearful ... ... Since 1941 it has been a naval base for Japan.
Probably more than a hundred bumboats gathered around selling whiskey and Chinese national flags. Everyone grin, looks very happy the Americans came.
We have dump trucks on deck, six Japanese operate a large crane to remove them. Every time we turned around to look at them, they responded with smiles, I think they may have thought we would kill them.
Today, most of the Japanese sailors are gone away, because I heard last night there were more than two hundred Japanese killed by Chinese Communists. The trouble is, there are three forces in the struggle, in fact, staged in the streets of Shanghai is already a civil war.
Last night on liberty, we take a rickshaw ride on the streets of Shanghai. I saw two factions of soldiers fighting in the street .
Then we went into a fine dining restaurant, whiskey alone probably spent a million local dollars, it is equivalent to twenty U.S. dollars.... ... Most of the sailors on my boat buy whiskey, drink drunk. These sailors, whether married or single, already have 44 points and can be discharged, but the military will not let them go. Some people say to them simply jump ship, do not wait for the captain to let you go.You know, Dad, these sailors have been in the Navy, three or four years, have a family wife and children.When we docked in Okinawa the captain would not let them go ashore because if they have enough points they can report to office on shore and get to go home. The captain did a dirty trick by prohibiting them from leaving ship. So I want to change boats.
One night in Shanghai on liberty, Bob and his friends spent about $20 US dollars at the bar on whiskey.
Sorry, I did not finish the letter last night.
This morning, a sailor died suddenly. He bought whiskey from bumboat that contained methanol.
This afternoon we cleared the wood off our deck- was used to store gasoline. We drop it into the sea. Beginning, about ten boats come around to grab these boards. When we finished there were over fifty boats.Some people got hit by the boards, but do not go away. We spray them with fire hose to move away, but they would only laugh.That is how stupid Chinese boat people are.
I dropped last piece of wood into water and it came up to surface and hit a little girl's head, but she just stand up began to pull it into boat.At this time, ten other boats quickly came over to grab the board away, and then began to brawl, wow, what a fight. Men hitting women and children, severely beaten, women fight back with their paddles and boat hooks. It was bloody battle.
Bumboat people live like animals. They came early next to our ships to eat garbage we dump into the water.These are the lowest people in China.
Your son, Bob sent from Shanghai
To Bob, familiar with the endless corn-fed American landscape, it is difficult to imagine such Chinese "animals" who like to snatch the boards away from each other and to imagine that this how they live in China all over. However, he could see on the pier Japanese waiting for repatriation with eyes trace of fear, he also noted that from the different clothing of soldiers fighting in the city streets, the brink of civil war had erupted.
Taiwan Governor's statistics said that by August 10, 1945 until death in Taiwan since the U.S. bombing of five thousand five hundred people, injured as many as 8,000 by the light 700.
During the war, as a military husband, and their dependents as well as "volunteers" were sent to do hard labor in China and Southeast Asia, on the battlefield, there are 200,000.
Shipped to Japan, High Block, Naval Air Arsenal as "young workers", there are more than eight thousand four hundred children in Taiwan. End of the war, thirty three hundred and four Taiwanese youth to sacrifice their lives for Japan.
August 15, when the Emperor tight and trembling slightly, "Yu sound" from the radio run out of that moment, the people of Taiwan, whether it is defeated or overcome by it?
August, just Zhongyuan Purdue. Longshan Temple in Taipei's Wanhua courtyard in a sea of ??people, incense-filled, bustling food stalls outside the temple grounds. Particularly lively lion dance moves hard, it's particularly easy to unbridled laughter, children frolic with the Lions lost to the firecrackers. Mid-Autumn moon cake shops selling has been the pomelo and the moon cake gift boxes piled to the road will come up.
Writer Huang Chun-ming said the emperor announced Japan's defeat that day, his grandfather happily, that "liberated"; his father, sadly, that "fall" of the. Huang-year-old Ilan children, opening their eyes to see.
Is not, just born in what year, that year will define your identity?
Dr. Ping Wu, Tainan City, in September 1944 were called off to Southeast Asia. Fifty-nine physicians, three pharmacists, or 80 medical assistants, Jing God in Kaohsiung Harbor to catch balls, bound for Southeast Asia front. Pacific Ocean has been the U.S. Air Force control, Jing pill to God "and" shaped tortuous voyage, escape the bombing. Almost to be expected, this is a hell ship. January 12, 1945, God Jing Wan in Sai Kung was bombed off the coast, on board three hundred forty-two passengers died two hundred forty-seven.
Survive Wu Ping City, was sent to Saigon, Vietnam, Japan to take care of the wounded. August 15, he was in Saigon Medical yard and other three hundred hospital staff stood in the courtyard, the Emperor down to listen to the announcement. As a Taiwanese, Wu Ping is only joy the hearts of the city, most could not restrain the impulse is to get back to my dear family around. Medical length of Wu Ping City - now he has called "Yamada", said: "Yamada, since you are Chinese, we are Japanese, Chinese and Japanese have the opportunity to play together, the United States it!"
Wu Ping City not answer, the same Captain Tanaka, the Japanese Military has launched an attack directed at the Medical Long said with a straight face, "Medical long, you now also come to their senses, say such a thing to the Japanese idea that there are too many people Like you, want a unified world, to people all over the world speak Japanese, kimono, will point to today's sad ah! "
Saigon Medical yard only two doctors from Taiwan. Yamamoto asked two long-Military forces with the Japanese are willing to advance and retreat, or choose from, the two Taiwanese people choose to leave. The next day, the two Taiwan doctors receive a salary, tricycles left and found the entire staff of Medical lined up to lead long in the hospital entrance, the two Taiwanese colleagues hat salute. Culmination of a grand farewell.
1937 Taipei Imperial University Medical School enrollment group.
"This is when the Japanese Navy farewell gift," Wu Ping City hearts deep emotion, "we become a stranger from the exotic people, and they still make the final courtesy."
Chiayi people pass every Weng, Tokyo Japan medical school. Jing Wu Ping City of God to catch balls, when U.S. forces blasted Tokyo has been scorched earth, devastated, Dion decided to get out through every precarious Japan to Manchukuo to go.
He did not hear the 15 Emperor's broadcast. Back in the early hours of the night on August 9, the new Beijing Changchun sudden shrill of air raid sirens sounded, waking the public already uneasy. Artillery and tanks quickly into the city, came to fight the Soviet Red Army. This surprised to find many people in Taiwan, the message informed the Japanese, have been "disperse" to the outside. Speak Japanese, wearing Japanese clothing colonial Taiwanese, no one notice, too late to still stay in the city first. Fear of the Red Army's atrocities, but also fear of revenge Manchus, Taiwanese gathered self-help, food stocks, Hire, find a way to start the individual to flee.
Weng through every group of people with two bags of rice, a bag of beans, a bag of salt on the road. Changchun City, East River through a bridge in Iraq, leading to the two rivers, is the only way out of the city; in Japanese fourteen years of life under the rule of the Manchus, then waited at the two river Qiaolan on special "block" the Japanese, to see the kill, "one or two days so that streams are red." encouraged about the Japanese during the war hundreds of thousands of Japanese civilians to Manchuria, "development", most already poor farmers. After 15 August, these people suddenly become not develop the abandoned people in possession. Weng pass to open up every know some people, I heard some people displaced to Changchun, Changchun, particularly rushed to the "Japanese Society in full relief," to visit, but found, with people from the North over the south, a third died.
In an eight tatami room, slept nearly ten people, several of which have been hard, and lying in the middle of the living; living no strength to stand up to close friends and relatives of the dead bodies carried away.
Taiwanese living in the Northeast carefully; Soviet soldiers raped four women, dressed in military uniforms, street robbery. Soviet troops left, the Eighth Route Army came; the Eighth Route Army is gone, the military came; the military away; the Communist Party again. Manchus said the Japanese for the Japanese ghost, ghosts in Japan, said the second man in Taiwan. In each level, the people of Taiwan should strive to prove that they are not Japanese, Mandarin would say that bad, just boldly say they are "the people of Shanghai." Hakka people will say, then found, with the Hakka shouted, "I am Taiwanese," has become the language of life insurance.
Dion decided to leave the Northeast through every physician fled Taiwan in 1945, it was surviving a cold winter, he saw the defeated people's experience:
That was in November, saw a group from the North over the sparse open (evacuation) to young people, about a hundred people or so, all in their twenties. Young people should have been very brave, ambitious, but stripped of their clothes was hit, the body only when the clothes covered her with straw, in twenty degrees below zero, the walk dejected.
I think they do not walk steady, I thought these people probably live much longer. I followed in the post, would like to see them live? They live in a Japanese elementary school, which has nothing to something, just cold on the cold much. After three weeks I would go to the school playground like a grave.
I think in the summer that will be out of the dead dead pit water, epidemics may occur, it does not appear to leave the Northeast to die.
In 1945, tens of thousands of
Taiwanese wait in Australia and New Guinea terminals, pending
Two Formosan children, looking out the window.
What Bob in his moment of writing ,and his fellow sailors aboard the tank landing ship USS LST-847, do not know is that they are slowly entering the Chinese contemporary history books.
His ship was launched nine months ago as a new boat, bow to stern length is three hundred twenty-eight feet, can carry more than a thousand, twelve knot speed, equipped with eight forty cm diameter, twelve respect twenty centimeters diameter steel shot. There are one hundred and thirty crew men on board.
All at sea, wandering people believe, the ship, there is life, there are feelings, there is fate. The ocean can give you blue skies, you pride clouds, can suddenly tip over, so you sink into the unfathomable darkness, do not give any reason. In the sea, people, especially small, his fate and the fate of the ship tied up tightly, like sweat, tears and blood infiltration infiltration of wood, the wood darker.
On January 15, 1945 his ship began the inaugural mission, the new ship was scrapped in June next year. Because in this short year and a half between the Pacific Ocean on its way through the intensive, day and night navigation, flight Chengdu Cheng every trip carrying human life to death, in particular, more tears, especially the bitter sigh.
Log, is a ship's Chronicle and the resume, tell you what year what day it come from and where it went. .Chronicle looks very boring, but that a careful person, better able to quietly from a string of dates and locations, the deep to see the history behind the scene, scene, ah, breathtaking.
Warship, from autumn 1945 to spring 1946, in half a year, has been in Shanghai, Qingdao, Japan Sasebo, Keelung, Kaohsiung, keep a few ports to and fro between the voyage, the Chinese soldiers , the Chinese soldiers under; Japanese overseas prisoners, and prisoners under the Japanese Overseas - it really up to?
One thousand nine hundred forty-five this autumn to the spring of 1946 six months after the end of World War II, flying Lipu, you put the whole territory of the Pacific on the mind of the macro, and you will see, each pier is full: the millions of went over to the military defeat of Japan to receive the return of the territory; received after the millions of Chinese National Army is to cross the sea, after marched from north to south in the front line of civil war; millions of Japanese prisoners of war and diaspora, to return to Japan home; scattered in the north, south, Hainan Island Southeast Asia around the people of Taiwan to return to Taiwan; hundreds of thousands of prisoners of war camps liberated from the Pacific the United Kingdom, India, Australia, the U.S. soldiers to go home.
Sasebo, Huludao, Qinhuangdao, Tanggu, Qingdao, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Ningbo, Keelung, Kaohsiung, Hong Kong, Hainan Island, Singapore, Vietnam Haiphong, Manila, New Guinea, Rabaul ... ...
A pier, a view: Thousands of emaciated Japanese, only allowed with a minimum of baggage, and their loved ones cling together, huddle and depression. Separating it from the Japanese, but temporary loss of the scattered parts of Taiwan and their dependents; was conscripted into the war in New Guinea for the labor of young men in Taiwan and Guangdong, thousands of thousands waited at the dock, anxiously looking for the boat home.
Tired of the war, eight separate ways the military, re the whole team, the pier was full of tanks, ammunition, horses, baggage equipment.
If you want to say great migration, large displacement, one thousand nine hundred forty-five the amplitude is more than 1949, huge waves even more magnificent. Bob was on just one of many US ships for repatriation transport, but a careful look at its log, reveal the white horses each route, draw the fate of a nation; each say goodbye and departure terminals, personal predictions are difficult to grasp the future.
LST-847 landing ship log [link to the LST-847 deck log summary]
1945-09-16 depart from Okinawa, the target Shanghai
1945-09-20 Shanghai terminal parking
1945-10-08 China seventy commanders and followers boarding
1945-10-10 left here, go to Ningbo
1945-10-12 arrived in Ningbo terminal anchor. Seventy military commanders and followers disembark
1945-10-14 seventy soldiers boarding military 500
1945-10-15 from Ningbo to go to Keelung Harbor
1945-10-17 arrived in Keelung, seventies soldiers set foot on the docks in Keelung
1945-11-15 arrived in Vietnam, Hai Phong port
1945-11-19 China sixty-two military officers and their respective 55 499 soldiers in the coastal boarding
1945-11-20 Formosa dog to go to Hong Kong
1945-11-25 dog arrived
1945-12-02 arrived in Haiphong, loading 47 Chinese military trucks and drivers
1945-12-08 loading, unloading 688 Chinese soldiers; from Haiphong, go to Qinhuangdao and Huludao
1945-12-19 sinking two mines
1945-12-22 Huludao arrived, unloading Chinese soldiers
1945-12-26 arrived in Qingdao
1946-01-21 mounted six U.S. Navy, 1020 Japanese prisoners of war overseas and the equipment
1946-01-22 to Japan Sasebo base
1946-01-25 overseas-old girl a day die due to malnutrition, to be buried at sea
1946-01-30 China installed 19 civilians ---18 females, one male, went to Qingdao
1946-02-14 arrived in Qingdao, Chinese civilians unloading, loading 1190 on prisoners overseas, went to Sasebo
1946-02-18 children died of pneumonia two days. Be buried at sea
1946-02-25 arrived in Sasebo, Japan unloading prisoners overseas
1946-02-27 A 31-year-old Japanese soldiers. Be buried at sea
At same time as Bob's LST-847 departing Okinawa on September 16, 1945 bound for Shanghai, the Nationalist Chinese 70th Army was reaching the imposing gates of Ningbo; tens thousands of people of all ages lined the cheering, a lot of people think that the barren years of grief, could not help tears.
70th army came into the city of Ningbo, representing the Nationalist government.
Receiver, not an matter of course, because not all of the city gates are open, waiting for welcome to the national army into the city. In late 1940, when the CCP Eighth Route Army has expanded from four million to 500,000 party members from forty thousand to the development of 800,000 Chinese population under the jurisdiction of close to 100 million. After three years, the Communist Party has declared that the hands of the Japanese recovered from sixteen counties, eighty square kilometers of land, and twelve million people. When the Japanese surrendered, the military side but also at the main south-west, but also took the opportunity troops recovered two hundred and eighty small and medium sized cities.
September, Ningbo city, is the Japanese defenders of the independence of hybrid ninety-first trip with Wang Jingwei government's "puppet," the 10th Division. Drive outside the city, according to the Communist New Fourth Army guerrilla column belongs to eastern Zhejiang, the national government is still a distant third regular theater south of Zhejiang, Jiangxi, eastern and northern Fujian. Ningbo is the Communist forces in order to prevent receiving, the Japanese national government ordered the city to continue stationed, to maintain order, while the "puppet" of the local team adapted a "loyalty Salvation Army Military Commission Shanghai Special Operations Corps," a column under the .
More importantly, far away in the rank order of Fujian disease seventy drive north, marching day and night, receiving Ningbo city.
The people of Ningbo, the war would not end. Seventy troops in the running of the morning when the rumble of gunfire around the city of Ningbo. Communist New Fourth Army fight the literature describes the battle of Ningbo City:
... ... To Pozhu potential Liangong Puppet Guanhaiwei other locations ... ... under the gates of the city of Ningbo. Yin Jiangqiao a war, defeat the two pseudo-ten teacher reinforcement, the following officers and men to death more than four pseudo-battalion commander who captures a hundred people, and seized mortars two.
70th military force close to the suburbs of Ningbo City, the New Fourth Army assessed the enemy situation and the poor, real-time decision to give up, Ningbo, withdrawal northwards.
I heard the people of Ningbo, Ningbo Government to receive, and excitedly spread the news. Decorated archway at once on the ride up, the city is flying the flag, firecrackers explode. I do not know when to start kids in the street playing a game called "soda Japan, U.S. and British", painted on the ground side of the Japanese sun flag, who represents four children decide which country mora, then we throw a flag pointed to the sun the awl, to see who lost a prospective, strike a deep.
At 10:00 on September 17, 1945, seventies military and the gentry of Ningbo in the Drum Tower and the public before the flag-raising ceremony was held into the city.
Standing on the square of the elderly, looking at ROC national flag rose slowly, it set off against the backdrop of the Drum Tower, can not help but to initiate startled. This tower was originally the South Gate of ancient city walls, were built in the Tang Mu Changqing first year, which is the year eight hundred and twenty a year. Drum no drums, only the computing time of leakage. 1048, Yin County magistrate has been here only a new moment for the leakage, to write a "new moment leak Ming", the magistrate is not an ordinary magistrate, he is Wang.
Drum has thousands of years, witnessed many flags raised and lowered and lowered and raised.
Ningbo City, four years in the five months after the Japanese occupation, the first quiet down.
Peaceful means, the Drum Tower before the hawkers selling things up more, many children run laughing up the sky Sparrow, boldly landed square on the noisy chase. Stoop-shouldered old man with back, and safely sitting at home basking in the sun on a bench in front of a nap.
Log said that Bob's tank landing ship on October 10 left Shanghai, Ningbo heading.
Shuttles 70th military originally thought to be temporarily stationed in Ningbo down, but suddenly received the order: three days to boarding else, and over Taiwan.
Young Bob's LST-847 tank landing ship transported 70th Nationalist Chinese Army troops from Ningbo, Shanghai, China to Keelung, Formosa (Taiwan)..
70th military, is what forces? Where to where to go? What battle is fought?
Yes, it fought the Battle of Shanghai in 1937. This battle, you remember, the Chinese military casualties within three months one hundred and eighty-seven thousand two hundred people.
Japanese strong arms of the fine, dense air and sea artillery of the violent, the military makes the battle into the fire like a melting pot of the same. Involved in war veterans, "said a force, exhausted in less than a few days for casualties down, I saw teaching corps that regiment, neatly up, down, only a few bear the deputy food. "
Chen Li-an said, "should be Taiwan, you know what that means?"
Father was a military general, he served as secretary of defense, he could not resist a little about veterans reveal the truth, "the military is probably an even 130 people, an even playing the remaining five, sixty men time, we should add. There is a veterans fought Battle of Shanghai told me that he even added an eighth that - you think about Look at the number of dead soldiers? "
In the dense network of fire, how to add it? I asked.
"I asked him this question," Lu Ann said, "veterans said, then, ah, 1937, young people, many college students, lined up waiting to be on the battlefield, is to keep the Japanese to fight ... ... "
Bob's American sailor friend took this
photo, Chinese 70th Army soldiers
marching in the streets of Shanghai, sandals on their feet..
So-called 70th military, not a fixed list of teams. Even if a hundred people in a campaign where you can "supplement" to eighth, and that representatives of the people in front of a wave to feed the fire, the people behind the waves move forward to fill, as if to keep the fireplace Tian Chai. If the front is a well-trained, brave and the blood of soldiers, many have little training behind the patriotic students, but also the back, more and more likely to be muddled, age, lack of ground was taken away from the crops, too late to learn how gun recruits.
Then 70th military to participate in Battle of Wuhan, Nanchang battle, the first Battle of Changsha, Changsha, the second battle, battle, Zhejiang and Jiangxi, Fujian and Zhejiang campaign, etc., without a battle is not flesh and blood flying, tragic sacrifice. March 1941, the high battle broke out, seventy seventy Zhang Lingfu Army and Fourth Army fought side by side, is one of the main. Well-known in this fierce fight in the battle, the Japanese military killed fifteen thousand people, he is even more casualties, nearly twenty thousand men died on the battlefield.
A battle, in later history books up on his words, not a few people read; but at the time of the wilderness, twenty thousand broken body, vultures eat.
Mid-October in 1945, finally arrived in Ningbo after march thousands of miles, yet the 70th military, without recovery was suddenly told to take over Taiwan. They hurriedly boarding, of course, do not know, they had a history of this into the frame.
1941 Chen Li-an, in Chongqing.
Witnessed on a pier in Ningbo of 70th military boarding for Taiwan, the Chinese people very surprised "over Taiwan," such a great thing, so to a lack of military preparation before the line:
Pier, a disorder of the scene. Terminal side, is to come to bid farewell to the local officials and citizens; side of hundreds of Thousands of soldiers, lined up squeezed into the dock, standing there I do not know how to press the sequence of boarding. Standing in front of the pier a few cocky Navy commander seeing, first in English Jiligulu a while, see that no one ignores only shouted: "Who can speak English?"
Boat trip two days and nights, October 17, 1945, flags flying, LST-847 and mighty big fleet pulled into Keelung Harbor. Yang Shou-folder inside the ranks of the 70th military, set foot on the dock, looking out of the scene is a greater confusion:
There are sections on the terminal date of the fire compartment in the side of the cross; side is the landing of men scrambling, shouting into a slogan, the team huddled together, very confusing. In particular baggage forces compete with each other ... ... Road, transported on the train to grab the gun, but shouting abuse, noisy mess. These actions constitute a picture, nothing like a well-trained teams, rigorous military capacity for recovery of land division in the tour.
I thought the war just ended, about all the receiving units are chaotic it. Talk with the wu, to know, is not the case.
Author wu of the twenty-first Army unit - yes, this is the 228 Incident in 1947 after the outbreak of the ninth day, were immediately transferred to Taiwan in the twenty-first division, was "military" reorganization of "teacher." 70th Army arrived in Keelung, two weeks later, Chang left the military belongs to the twenty-first ordered to move into Zhenjiang, Nanjing will go through the middle.
Only "after" is not to "receive" Nanjing twenty-first army to do a lot of advance thought and preparation. Forces in the city of Nanjing is still some way away from the Cai Shiji stopped, took a full three days the whole complement, that is, before taking office grooming and make-up mirror: older, ugly attitude, dragging disease, with injuries, lame legs, and groom many do hard labor, porters, cooks, and evading these people, must pull the pots and pans hands portable umbrella baskets, ammunition, medical equipment goods, etc., all are in the middle of the night before into the city around to Nanjing city, and brought the train to the next stop to wait.
Young and healthy, neat appearance of the soldiers on the front row.
Fewer outsiders to the gate where troops once again ready: each soldier to tighten his waist belt, shoelaces tied in prison, and even backpacks are unloaded and re-fastened.
Twenty-one military equipment actually tough matter. Their backpack, not canvas, is made of nine closely woven bamboo, sugar quilts folded into corners like a clip on both sides of bamboo, fastened on to a package. Their helmets, the surface shape of the helmet looks the same as with the German soldiers, in fact, has never been a helmet - steel is a luxury, they are wearing a "helmet Li", woven bamboo grate film, just make the shape of the helmet.
Think about it. Artillery shells and machine gun bullets flutter flutter days to come, wearing the hats, cannot hold back even the stone.
Because more of a heart, so twenty-one real army into the city, when people see Nanjing is a though wearing Zhu Li, wearing sandals, light equipment, but basically simple, the pace brisk and the ranks of the military capacity of neat. Seventeen wu remember, a city gate, he saw along the road there are many Japanese soldiers lined up to salute, gates on the two strings of firecrackers were lit the long, successive sounds of crackling sounded explode. "Our spirit is lifted, sandals standing on the ground is particularly strong stable ..."
Those who crowded the pier in Keelung and Taipei's streets have not seen the Chinese army in Taiwan for more than 50 years. Know the military will train bound from Keelung, Taipei, many people waiting on both sides of the railway. There are many people, from the southern trek from far away, waiting for this moment of history.
Taipei Biji Long is hot, the streets packed with people, human sweat and body temperature cross rub, Rendui extruded back close to the back wall of the meat, the meat wall, people are still paving the toes, craned their necks to look around; parents make children riding on their shoulders across the legs, eager and nervous.
Wu Cho-liu's novel writer for Taiwan girls 'Magnolia' eyes, so to see the "motherland":
Lane streets are crowded full of young and old, so it's Celebration, lively exception. Executive Office on both sides of the road in front, the Japanese high school students, female students and students of higher education came in there a long silence stood. Magnolia to see this situation a lot of heart touched by the past look down on people, repeatedly ridiculed the "Shina soldiers, Shina soldiers" high and mighty of these people, now turned into like this ... ...
Motherland ... ... Army team finally came the long walk straight, every soldier is back an umbrella magnolia a little surprised, but quickly erased that feeling, she did not used to seeing that this is the reason . Some lug pots, food, or bedding, etc. Magnolia Taiwan in the early years saw the ranks of the troupe when changing places, just have that feeling. Her heart is very sad ... ...
Probably the same one time, twenty-year-old from Japan, Peng Ming-min is also heading for Keelung Harbor naval base from Sasebo aboard Bob's LST.
Peng Ming-min in the Tokyo Imperial University before the war, read political science, the Japanese do not want to be called up on the battlefield, so the thought of leaving Tokyo Nagasaki to join their brother, but suffered in the midst of U.S. bombing, a bomb exploded at the side, he has since lost an arm. The future as one of the leaders of the Taiwan independence movement ashore Peng Ming-min in Keelung Harbor, the first contact with the motherland, I feel incredible:
Along the way we saw a group of people dressed in ragged uniforms dirty, you can see they are not Taiwanese. Our rickshaw pullers in the tone of contempt and disgust that those of Chinese soldiers, with the U.S. military only recently delivered to the vessel from the mainland port of Keelung to ... ...
After receiving the Chinese people, everything is paralyzed. Public facilities gradually stopped, recently by the Chinese to the administrative staff, neither can, and unparalleled corruption, and to grasp Dingla to the "national army", but no different from the thief, they will immediately look at the boat into a group of hooligans. This is really a bleak picture ... ...
1940 study in Japan, Peng Ming-min (map)
Keelung train station is very dirty, full of dirty Chinese soldiers, who because there is no better shelter, then they stay busy all night train. When the train came in, people scramble to get on the train. When the crowd pushed forward frantically, when the luggage was thrown into the car and kids from the window, then adults can go along with seats for crowded fiercely. We finally forced to find a seat and began the long, slow trip. From the broken window of the cold wind blowing the first month, the seat cloth has been cut, but obviously you can see, cars do not have a good cleaning after a few weeks. This is the "Chinese Taiwan", not that we are familiar with the "Japan of Taiwan." We never had seen such a dirty chaotic train ... ...
Peng Ming-min to see if 70th military repulsive hateful, then seventy Yang Yi Zhou's eyes Jun, is ridiculous:
Some lug with two pole cage, a fitted charcoal stove, a fitted rice and wilted vegetables. Some teenage soldiers child soldiers, some veterans aged walking. We wear sandals, and a barefoot, some wearing one. There are also lame, the blind one has, there are also skin diseases, as wearing a green cotton dress uniform, looked like wrapped in blankets like to walk, so the Taiwanese people call them "quilt Corps." Stuck behind an umbrella when it rains Chengzhaoyusan march, the team moved, can be described as the world wonders.
Keelung from Ningbo the 70th army, with regard to such an almost cartoon, profiling the "classic" fixed image, dignified into Taiwan's contemporary history. After sixty years, Taiwan's history, a private high school exam papers there such a:
Taiwan has a description of the current situation of the situation as follows: "... 70th army arrived in Taiwan on shore, was actually ragged, lax discipline, sandals, shoes mess, and there holding an umbrella, carrying a pot to catch a pig son, full of wonders . "
This is the period which the history of Taiwan?
(A) during the Japanese rule Taiwan
(B) National Government
(C) during the Chief Executive's Office
(D) during the provincial government
The correct answer, of course, is C.
Government moved to
Taiwan for the
first time the National Day parade,
when he was governor of Taiwan, Chen Cheng, review the Army.
(Photo by Xie Peng, 1949)
When October 17, 1945 landed in Keelung, Taiwan, the 70th Army troops appeared to the people Taiwan, to be a "rogue army", "beggar army."
Any set the type, simplistic mask back, all refused to be hidden in simple things. I wondered: had to receive 70th army, there must be people alive, they are truly say that? Rogue army, beggar army behind, hidden in the historical context what is? They suddenly notice from Ningbo, spanning the sea within three days came to a strange island, set foot on the dock at the moment, like what?
70th as ragged bear arms, the back Is not a single explanation?
I have to find a 70th military veterans.
Think, when military generals Liu Zhang's memoirs, shone a light.
After Japan surrendered, Liu Zhang on behalf of the Republic of China government, led fifty-two military reception in North Vietnam. MacArthur, Supreme Allied Commander, according to orders issued, "in China (excluding Manchuria), Taiwan and 16 degrees latitude north of the territory of French Indochina and Japanese generals all land, sea, air and auxiliary forces should surrender of Marshal Chiang Kai-shek "Therefore, the northern part of Vietnam is to receive Chinese military.
Time, almost across the sea with 70th military over Taiwan is synchronized, fifty-second Army in Vietnam, received after the order is received, immediately take the ship from the port of Haiphong in Vietnam, across the Taiwan Strait, rushed to the northeast of Qinhuangdao to receive .
And 70th military to take the same task, the eight years through the same bloody, Lamphun, North walk, wearing the same coat and worn military break at the end of the shoes, the same treacherous climb in thin air waves in the Taiwan Strait, fifty-two Army soldiers, but it is so in the face of Liu Zhang's memoirs:
Ship over the Taiwan Strait, the wind and waves, the majority of sick soldiers, and even sick to death who is determined by the ship pastor to pray at the funeral of the sea ... ...
Memory before the reception in Vietnam, because of the impact of war, the factory closed, many workers unemployed, without a living, there were hundreds of people linked with the division. Vietnam is a year-round hot, cold pain of the people never received. Bound for the northeast division, when the winter, warm clothing is not prepared, but also the way forward in the increasingly cold, caused by more soldiers membership, who froze to death as much as much as ten men, although the sense of mind could not bear, has only only call nonetheless.
Liu could not bear the full chapter text to tell me that, ah, the original habit of the soldiers fighting on land, most will be seasick on the boat, and severe motion sickness, the disease may be complicated by the original, is death; the original one by one soldiers, each from East and West, lack of acclimatization, cold or heat, they may be tortured to death.
While those who are sick to death across the Taiwan Strait was "buried at sea," the soldiers, I do not know how their loved ones at home know their last message? In that chaos, the dead bodies thrown into the sea after it will notify the family?
I finally found a Chinese 70th Army military veteran, in Taipei Wenzhou Street alley, is Lin Jing Wu.
The so-called "veterans", just turned eighteen, in January 1945 before the army, had crossed the ocean in October over Taiwan seventy become a member of the military.
"The landing ship, you get seasick?" I asked.
He said more than just seasick.
They studied 70th army one hundred and seven on the American landing ship, Ningbo, he noted, on American warships, even the deck is clean. Vats of warm coffee on deck, Americans tell Chinese soldiers please free to use, try to drink.
I stared at Lin Jing Wu, I thought, amazing, eighteen-year-old Lin Jing Wu and eighteen-year-old Bob from Michigan, touched the surface of the deck, drinking coffee together, on a ship bound for Keelung Harbor.
Lin Jing Wu, looking like "Black Wu Wu monster", tasted a few bites, U.S. sailors loudly applauded.
Warship at sea, heavy ups and downs, 70th Army soldiers began shaking and vomiting:
Head of the foot, foot start off, the smell of rust from the outside into the room, coffee, bitter sweet from the inside out, upside down, the ship to move Shenyao ... ... spit bile Lek still do not stop, spit a very tough battle, at least pick up Venus , covered with dirt spit cabin, the deck also confused people clean dirty, foul, really terrible.
The Fujian to the young people need something Ganchangcunduan side, his side also hate spit, spit the Americans into the floor clean and dirty deck, he felt that "degrading the military honor, national dignity corrupt Republic of China."
Sino-Japanese War fought seventy eight soldiers, all the ships on the East West crooked back, halo into a ball. Lin Jing Wu two days and nights without food one meter, a drop of water or drink, vomit empty stomach, dizzy head and eyes, "I think such a force, as well as the ability to fight it? And then someone shouted: 'in front of the mountains', fast to. "
Loud speaker came the command: "Keelung has arrived, ready to land, in order to prepare for the Japanese resistance, the units ready to fight."
The ship's soldiers to move, sick people body collapse, putting on his backpack and equipment, barely walking, gradually disembark, bid farewell to the U.S. sailors lined up on the deck. Lin Jing Wu side down the pier, while ashamed that his people left the cabin so dirty, how worthy people!
On Keelung dock, 70th Army soldiers thought saw a hill of white crystalline salt. Fujian coast, the white mountains of salt, too. It was curious to stick with a finger, leans over his mouth tasted, shouting aloud, "is the sugar!" To see the mainland are brown sugar, these soldiers, the first time I saw sugar, extremely surprised. A squad leader took a basin, dug over a pot of sugar, to taste each disoriented soldiers "Taiwan's taste."
Keelung dock the 70th army of soldiers saw very unexpected, is the groups of groups of Japanese, sleeping near the station; Japanese nationals, repatriation of ships in waiting to send them back home.
70th military veterans - mostly children in Hunan, eight-year war in their own risk one's life, home is broken up, the boat to see the Japanese, some people suddenly excited, can not stop at the pier on the hearts, cursed out loud : looting rape our women, guns and knives kill our fellow citizens, so now let them go home safely, which meant nothing!
"I also heard," Lin Jing Wu said, "There are two soldiers, gas, however, the evening went to rape a Japanese woman."
"On that pier?" I asked.
"Yes," Lin Jing Wu said, "but I just heard, not seen."
Lin Jing Wu left the home, the feet wearing a pair of shoes back to power, a lot of people envy. Wearing a pair of shoes bought by parents, then relied on the march thousands of miles, running drill relied on to reach the Keelung Harbor, the shoes have been broken at the end, feet, worn by road fever, blistering, swelling and pain.
Army, military shoes to the poor to impossible. Feet of the famous 70th military in sandals, or soldiers own series. Hit sandals, in that era, a soldier's basic skills, though you must be able to use chopsticks to eat.
Flax twisted rope, straw and rags rub together, five rope to pull a tight grip. Rain can not drill when extra time is to play sandals. 70th Army soldiers sit together, five rope, one tied to a pillar, a department in his waist, while chatting, while rubbing rags and straw, hand-way through quickly, while it lay a shoes.
Only know Hokkien recruits Lin Jing Wu, is not going to sandals. Hunan Xiangxiang from the monitor, how to get from the rope began to teach him, but monitor him over and over again in Hunan, then do not understand, so a veteran from Xiangtan, volunteered to stand aside, the Hunan Xiangxiang words seriously translated into words, Xiangtan, Hunan, Lin Jing Wu hear sweating, or play well. His series of straw sandals, because loose, come to the stage road miles, feet on the Pipoxueliu, between toes, blisters and capsules grow, Zhuixin pain. Finally had to switch: read the book eighteen recruits Fujian Lin Jing Wu Hunan for the veterans who are not literate read newspapers, write letter, Hunan veteran, was playing his sandals.
"Mr. Lin," I asked, "When Taiwanese now reference to 70th military, say they wear sandals, back umbrellas, dilapidated, is a beggar army - how do you say?"
"I fully agree," Lin Jing Wu upright, his eyes looked at me the expansive, "we looked like beggars. To the Keelung Harbor, we are full of cotton there is also lice in hair."
I looked at him, the eighteen Fujian youth, this year has been 83 years, his voice, there is a particularly blunt "righteousness."
"We are beggars army," he said, "But have you ever thought, 70th Army, eight years before reaching the Keelung Harbor, crawl out from the river of blood? You know, we came from Ningbo, following a forced march during the war several hundred kilometers, wearing a frayed straw sandals? "
I thought, but I know people do have a thought.
The spring of 1946, 23 year-old rocks in Taiwan young men because of political defeat of Japan, to restore the identity of students, decided to return to Taipei from Tokyo University in Taiwan to continue reading.
He jumped on an old and the old U.S. military ship "free wheel", the ship arrived in Keelung, but not immediately landing, because all the people on board, must be quarantined. Waiting ashore, a large number of people in Taiwan came back from Japan, many students like him, from the deck that you can see, the Chinese military in droves, to eat in the terminal on the ground, squatting, sitting. Used to seeing in the eyes of the Japanese in Taiwan, which military equipment looks old, tired, deportment and physical looks particularly bad. The people of Taiwan on the deck you one criticism I have one to begin to reveal disappointed, look down look.
This time, always alone to the side, then very little rock in their own reading of the political man, suddenly inserted to speak, but also tell you that.
"To our country," the young man said, "military equipment in such poor conditions to win the Japanese, is a very great thing, we use the perspective of their admiration is ah."
Rock in Masao, and later resume his Chinese name, Lee.
In that context, the words will tell the 23 year-old man, I think, the ability of compassion and inclusion of mind, it should be unusual is?
Chapter 48, you come to any delay
In the terminal, the train next to the square craned their necks eagerly waiting for the military's impossible to imagine the people of Taiwan of course, ragged, exhausted 70th military might deep inside the individual grievances and feelings, 70th Army unable to imagine that deafening sound of drums in Taiwan cheering people waving flags inside, sporting a full equally Tolerance and personal trauma, plus five years of depression.
70th military can not know standing in the crowd lined the streets where, for example, Wu Xinrong such a person, how to think.
Tokyo Medical University graduate, good town in Tainan County, MD, Wu Xinrong practicing writers, there is the habit of keeping a diary. September 1945, the printing has been simmering in the south shore Shengchuan Guo Jun, his joy, his sleepless nights.
September 7, "heard this on the 12th to come Chinese army stationed in Tainan, so some friends to see this historic grateful evening wash the body, drink more sworn, big fast."
"History of gratitude" is expressed by a colony grew up in Taiwan, the sovereign state in Japan's literary elite education by heart, how full of repressed desire and once released it's surging national feelings.
September 8, excitement over his desk and sat down, took out a brush to write Chinese poetry. Poetic text naive, simple, emotional state of mind, such as the sky the moon Hao Jie, if the reproducibility of the Han Dynasty:
Because drinking too much last night, a strong night sleep without sleep. So it wrote to inform Huangbai Lu, Jun Yang Rong mountain two, said the 12 to go to Tainan to see Chinese military entered the situation, he wrote, "Zu Guojun Welcome Song" as following in mind:
The city is flying the flag style drum sound village
I Zu Guojun to you to any delay
Dark world fifty years
Today only see blue sky day today see the beginning
Public cheers the high national spirit ho
I Zu Guojun to you to any dignified
Fifty years of slavery
Free today before it may liberate today before it may
Sun and Jin Ming Emperor count Festival
I Zu Guojun to you to Helie Lie
Dress-breaking five decades
Baizu today before they can go before they can race today
But on September 12, the military and not stationed in Tainan; Bob's LST tank landing ship after taking 70th military to Keelung Harbor was sent to Vietnam Hai Phong port; and Liu of 52 chapters, like the military, the National six twelve legions of troops are Haiphong Harbor boat. Awaiting repatriation at all terminals have many millions of people, but there is not enough boats.
Log revealed that, LST-847 landing ship on November 19, at Hai Phong port embarked 55 officers and 449 soldiers of 62nd Chinese Army heading for "Formosa". Six days later it arrived at Takao, also known as" dog "in Kaohsiung. Responsible for receiving six-twelve legions of southern Taiwan, on November 25, before landing in Kaohsiung.
Wu Xinrong to see the motherland of the army in September on the "fast bath", but a white. Did not wait until the national army, but added the first National Day on October 10 arrived.
National Day commemorating the first fifty years, Wu Xinrong excitedly rush past on his bicycle. Tainan he saw "the streets were Kuomintang flag" gentry County Hall, were standing on the terrace, facing the streets gathering the voices of people with a warm heart crying out "Long live the great Republic of China." Dr. Wu Xinrong 38, mixed feelings, Shanshan tears.
By Qing Peng
Peng Ming-min's father, but it felt wrong. By Qing Peng, Qing Wang is covered by social medical, October 1945, rejoicing in the island, he was elected as a regional "welcome committee" of the director, responsible for the celebrations and welcome the military's ranks. Preparation for many days, bought enough fireworks, making welcome banners, setting up a beautiful pavilion at the pier, the purchase of a large number of stewed meat, soda, snack, get ready, after all, notice again: military delayed arrival. All the streets in front of the food, stupid.
The same stunned, repeated several times.
Finally, on November 25, 62nd Army really arrives. Japanese ordered to neatly line up on the pier. Even if defeated, the Japanese uniforms, or trim, the soldiers of deportment, or solemn.
Ships [including LST-847] enter the harbor, down the ladder, the victorious Chinese army, go to disembark.
By Qing Peng, Wu Xinrong, and a retrospective Kaohsiung, Tainan, folks, saw the victory of the army of the motherland:
First appear, it is a dirty guy, looks like the military bearing, more like a coolie, a pole across the shoulders, two hanging with the umbrellas, blankets, pots and cups, to go down swinging. Others have appeared, and it is the same, some shoes, some do not. Most are not even have a gun. They do not want to seem a little to maintain order and discipline, pushing forward disembark, for finally set foot on solid ground, it is like feeling happy, but they hesitated not neatly arranged on both sides of the face, handsome in their salute to the Japanese army .
Pang Qing home of his son subtlety by Japanese said, "If there is next to the crypt, I have already drilled into." Peng actually understand the history, he knows, these military veterans coming down the ladder, many of them in farming when they were pressed into military, how they will understand how much preparation the locals took in preparing this grand welcoming ceremony on the pier, but how deep their hidden grievances and expectations?
Peng Ming-min said that these soldiers, "about his life has never been the subject of 'Welcome' too. To take the lead officers, even the speech did not ... ... for them, is the conquered people of Taiwan people."
Taiwan's military and look forward to receiving "Wang Shi" Taiwan people, "pain" in a completely different point, the historical process so that they suddenly face to face, as if the alien's first crash. This did not understand, like bruises, quickly deteriorate into pus. Just ten months later, February 28, 1947, unrest in the island of Taiwan, the outbreak of violent bloodshed. Pang Qing Kaohsiung Senate by the Speaker, conscious and responsible for the obligation to "order" of military communication, two cultures violent conflict - you have to say the process of modernization of two violent conflict, I think you can, and finally to tragedy staged.
Pang Qing and other gentry representatives by entering the command, you are tied up. One of them painted bright representative temper upright, immediately yells, Chiang Kai-shek and Chen Yi. He was taken away immediately isolated, "court martial", the painted light was shot dead.
Peng Ming-min recall his father, back home, exhausted, two days unable to eat anything. The whole world, are crushed, the father if he did not participate in politics, and no longer care about any public affairs:
... ... He tasted was a betrayed idealist grief. To this point, he even threatened to shame him Chinese descent, married to a foreigner want to descendants, until future generations can no longer claim to be Chinese.
With a "wounded" memory of the people of Taiwan, not just Peng Ming-min.
I sat across from Vincent Siew. Worked as premier, is now vice president, and he still has a rustic simplicity temperament. In 1949, the year-old children in the countryside, home of the necessary fuel to extreme poverty, so he read deeply civilians. However, to talk about one thousand nine hundred forty-nine, he could not forget an event in one thousand nine hundred forty-seven.
Year-old child, can remember it?
He remembers Pan Muzhi physician.
Poor children, is sick can not afford a doctor. But after graduating from Tokyo Medical College opened in Chiayi, "the Health and Hospital" Pan, MD, is willing to free medical treatment for the poor. Siew's mother often told young Wan Long said, "Dr. Pan is your savior Oh, never forget."
Pang Qing and painted by the light go to coordination of Kaohsiung when the fortress, Pan Mu Zhi to the identity of Chiayi Senator, and the other eleven local gentry, to the water to the airport and military communication.
Twelve representatives in the March 25, 1947, all were tied to the front of Chiayi Railway Station and publicly executed.
Year-old Vincent Siew, also in the crowd, do not understand what had happened, but he watched with family as most familiar, most grateful, most beloved doctor, his hands tied behind his back, stuck back a long death row standard, aimed at gunpoint when pressing knees, and then a burst of gunfire, Dr. Pan down in a pool of blood, blood, turning to flow.
"Old," I said, "You all see? You live in the station?"
In that small, almost no decoration of the presidential palace reception room, we suddenly quiet for a moment.
Train station, The crowd, silent. No one dared to touch.
At this time, Wan Long's mother was illiterate, I do not know what time the hands have a fragrant, whispered to their child, "Go, take to your savior incense prayer and worship. You are a child, it does not matter. To it. "
Siew, a little country boy, holding an incense, sheepishly went forward, to a pool of blood by the body and before it bows, kneels.
The author thanks the following for their contributions to this book:
University of Hong Kong Hung Hing
Ying and Liang Qiaoling
Foundation Hoover Institution at Stanford University, National
Tsing Hua University Hsinchu, Republic of China Republic of China
Ministry of National Defense Department of Defense Office of the
President Republic of China Navy, Marine Corps Command Wuciou
garrison brigade country Shiguan Guo KMT Taiwan Historica Shi
Guanguo History Museum Military Veteran military Commission
Executive Yuan, Taipei 228 Memorial Museum in Kinmen County
Government Lienchiang County (Matsu)
Strictly numerical (Huangqi)
Hong Kong Chinese Culture Association Cultural Department of Zhejiang Province, Xiamen, Kinmen Association Federation of the Republic of China rescue Landis Taipei Hotel, Taiwan Chinese Road Hall CommonWealth Central News Agency
Australian War Memorial
US Navy veterans of the LST-847 ................................
Michael V. Grobbel
The family of Robert C. Grobbel
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May 24, 2004